Marijuana's cannabinoids protect the brain from Alzheimer's disease

Here is more evidence that THC and CBD, cannabinoids from marijuana, can effectively protect us from the damage that leads to the development of Alzheimer's disease as well as other neurological ailments. The cannabinoid THC stimulates both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, but the cannabinoid CBD steers THC away from the CB1 receptor and over to the CB2 receptors, thus possibly activating the neuroprotective effects described in this study. With the trillion dollar threat that Alzheimer's disease poses to our national health care budget, isn't it critical that we recruit more adults to use some form of marijuana? Tell you friends and family that the most effective thing they can do to protect themselves from Alzheimer's disease is to start using cannabis--either smoking or vaporizing a small amount a few times a week, or taking some drops of a cannabis tincture before bedtime or eating a low-dose edible. What we want to do is increase the regular consumption of cannabinoids in our society because the evidence is in: using some form of marijuana regularly lowers our risks for developing numerous, serious illnesses. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013 Jan 1;354:847-58. doi: 10.3233/JAD-130137.CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist Ameliorates Alzheimer-Like Phenotype in AβPP/PS1 Mice.Aso E, Juvés S, Maldonado R, Ferrer I.SourceInstitut de Neuropatologia, Servei d'Anatomia Patològica, Abstract: The specific CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist JWH-133 induced cognitive improvement in double AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice, a genetic model of Alzheimer's disease. This effect was more pronounced when administered at the pre-symptomatic rather than the early symptomatic stage. The cognitive improvement was associated with decreased microglial reactivity and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IFNγ. In addition, JWH-133 reduced the expression of active p38 and SAPK/JNK, increased the expression of inactive GSK3β, and lowered tau hyperphosphorylation at Thr181 in the vicinity of amyloid-β plaques. Moreover, JWH-133 produced a decrease in the expression of hydroxynonenal adducts, and enhanced the expression of SOD1 and SOD2 around plaques. In contrast, the chronic treatment with JWH-133 failed to modify the amyloid-β production or deposition in cortex and hippocampus. In conclusion, the present study lends support to the idea that stimulation of CB2 receptors ameliorates several altered parameters in Alzheimer's disease such as impaired memory and learning, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress damage and oxidative stress responses, selected tau kinases, and tau hyperphosphorylation around plaques.

via CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist Ameliorate... [J Alzheimers Dis. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI.

THC could be a chemotherapeutic agent for treating stomach cancer

Cannabinoids, such as THC, which activate the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are more effective against stomach cancer than the main chemotherapy treatment. Using marijuana protects us from so many cancers and other illnesses, aren't you mad that it's still illegal? Anticancer Res. 2013 Jun;33(6):2541-7.

Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist as an Alternative Drug in 5-Fluorouracil-resistant Gastric Cancer Cells.

Xian XS, Park H, Choi MG, Park JM.

Source

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505, Banpo-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul, 137-070, Korea. parkjerry@catholic.ac.kr.

Abstract

Fluorouracil is the main chemotherapeutic drug used for gastrointestinal cancers, which suffers the important problem of treatment resistance. There is little information whether cannabinoid agonists can be used as an alternative drug for fluorouracil-resistant gastric cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of a cannabinoid agonist, WIN-55,212-2, on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant human gastric cancer cells, to examine whether the cannabinoid agonist may be an alternative therapy. Survival of the 5-FU-resistant gastric cancer cell line, SNU-620-5FU/1000, was not significantly reduced even by a high dose of 5-FU treatment. However, WIN-55,212-2 inhibited the proliferation of SNU-620-5FU/1000 and enhanced their apoptosis, as indicated by an increase of apoptotic cell proportion, activated caspase-3 and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Furthermore, WIN-55,212-2 reduced phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, phospho-Akt (protein kinase B), B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) and BCL2-associated X (BAX) protein expression in 5-FU-resistant gastric cancer cells. These results indicate that a cannabinoid agonist may, indeed, be an alternative chemotherapeutic agent for 5-FU-resistant gastric cancer.

KEYWORDS:

Gastric cancer, apoptosis, cannabinoids, drug resistance, fluorouracil

via Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist as an Alternativ... [Anticancer Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI.

A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology

Using marijuana is your best bet for avoiding the ravages of Alzheimer's disease. And you don't have to use enough to get stoned, used as a preventative, one puff is enough to protect the brain from the inflammation and changes that lead to Alzheimer's dementia. A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology                                                       Lisa M. Eubanks,† Claude J. Rogers,† Albert E. Beuscher, IV,‡ George F. Koob,§ Arthur J. Olson,‡ Tobin J. Dickerson,† and Kim D. Janda corresponding author†

:Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia among the elderly, and with the ever-increasing size of this population, cases of Alzheimer's disease are expected to triple over the next 50 years. Consequently, the development of treatments that slow or halt the disease progression have become imperative to both improve the quality of life for patients as well as reduce the health care costs attributable to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we demonstrate that the active component of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC, competitively inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase AChE as well as prevents AChE-induced amyloid β-peptide Aβ aggregation, the key pathological marker of Alzheimer's disease. Computational modeling of the THC-AChE interaction revealed that THC binds in the peripheral anionic site of AChE, the critical region involved in amyloidgenesis. Compared to currently approved drugs prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, THC is a considerably superior inhibitor of Aβ aggregation, and this study provides a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism through which cannabinoid molecules may directly impact the progression of this debilitating disease.Keywords: Cannabinoids, Alzheimer's disease, Acetylcholinesterase

via A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.

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A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology

Using marijuana is your best bet for avoiding the ravages of Alzheimer's disease. And you don't have to use enough to get stoned, used as a preventative, one puff is enough to protect the brain from the inflammation and changes that lead to Alzheimer's dementia. A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology                                                       Lisa M. Eubanks,† Claude J. Rogers,† Albert E. Beuscher, IV,‡ George F. Koob,§ Arthur J. Olson,‡ Tobin J. Dickerson,† and Kim D. Janda corresponding author†

:Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is the leading cause of dementia among the elderly, and with the ever-increasing size of this population, cases of Alzheimer's disease are expected to triple over the next 50 years. Consequently, the development of treatments that slow or halt the disease progression have become imperative to both improve the quality of life for patients as well as reduce the health care costs attributable to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we demonstrate that the active component of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC, competitively inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase AChE as well as prevents AChE-induced amyloid β-peptide Aβ aggregation, the key pathological marker of Alzheimer's disease. Computational modeling of the THC-AChE interaction revealed that THC binds in the peripheral anionic site of AChE, the critical region involved in amyloidgenesis. Compared to currently approved drugs prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, THC is a considerably superior inhibitor of Aβ aggregation, and this study provides a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism through which cannabinoid molecules may directly impact the progression of this debilitating disease.Keywords: Cannabinoids, Alzheimer's disease, Acetylcholinesterase

via A Molecular Link Between the Active Component of Marijuana and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.

[Marihuana and cannobinoids as medicaments]. [Przegl Lek. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Przegl Lek. 2012;69(10):1095-7. [Marihuana and cannobinoids as medicaments].

[Article in Polish]

Tkaczyk M, Florek E, Piekoszewski W.

Source Krakowska Wyzsza Szkoła Promocji Zdrowia, Kraków.

Abstract

Biological activity of cannabinoids is caused by binding to two cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Psychoactive is not only tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but also: cannabidiol, cannabigerol or cannabichromen. Formerly, the usefulness of hemp was assessed in the relation to temporary appeasement of the symptoms of some ailments as nausea or vomiting. Present discoveries indicates that cannabis-based drugs has shown ability to alleviate of autoimmunological disorders such as: Multiple sclerosis (MS), Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or inflammatory bowel disease. Another studies indicates that cannabinoids play role in treatment of neurological disorders like Alzheimer disease or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or even can reduce spreading of tumor cells. Cannabinoids stand out high safety profile considering acute toxicity, it is low possibility of deadly overdosing and side-effects are comprise in range of tolerated side-effects of other medications.

via [Marihuana and cannobinoids as medicaments]. [Przegl Lek. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI.

Study Says Cannabis May Help Reverse Dementia From Alzheimer’s

Study Says Cannabis May Help Reverse Dementia From Alzheimer’s  February 14, 2013 Toke up for the sake of your brain?                                                  The Sydney Morning Herald reports: A team from Neuroscience Research Australia is in the early stages of research examining if one of the main active ingredients in cannabis, called cannabidiol, could reverse some of the symptoms of memory loss in animals. Tim Karl, a senior research fellow with the group, said cannabidiol has been found to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and other effects that could be beneficial for the brain. His study involved injecting cannabidiol into mice that had symptoms similiar to those seen in Alzheimer’s, as well as examining what would happen to brain cells treated with the drug. Dr Karl found that when the mice were given the cannabidiol they showed drastic improvement on parts of the tests that were related to recognising and remembering objects and other mice: “You could say it cured them.”

via Study Says Cannabis May Help Reverse Dementia From Alzheimer’s | Disinformation.

Towards the use of cannabinoids as antitumour agents : Abstract : Nature Reviews Cancer

PerspectivesNature Reviews Cancer 12, 436-444 June 2012 | doi:10.1038/nrc3247                                                                      Opinion: Towards the use of cannabinoids as antitumour agents Guillermo Velasco1,2,3, Cristina Sánchez1 & Manuel Guzmán1,2,4 Various reports have shown that cannabinoids the active components of marijuana and their derivatives can reduce tumour growth and progression in animal models of cancer, in addition to their well-known palliative effects on some cancer-associated symptoms. This Opinion article discusses our current understanding of cannabinoids as antitumour agents, focusing on recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of action, including emerging resistance mechanisms and opportunities for combination therapy approaches. Such knowledge is required for the optimization of preclinical cannabinoid-based therapies and for the preliminary clinical testing that is currently underway.

via Towards the use of cannabinoids as antitumour agents : Abstract : Nature Reviews Cancer.

Marijuana-safe and effective for treating sleep apnea

Here is evidence that THC, the psychotropic cannabinoid found in marijuana, can benefit people suffering from sleep apnea. If you have sleep apnea, a toke or two of vaporized or smoked marijuana (or some tincture or an edible) could significantly improve your quality of life. Also, if there is some oxygen deprivation resulting from apnea, the cannabinoids will shield the brain and likely reduce the resulting damage. Front Psychiatry.  Epub 2013 Jan 22.

Proof of concept trial of dronabinol in obstructive sleep apnea.Prasad B, Radulovacki MG, Carley DW.SourceDepartment of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, IL, USA.AbstractStudy Objective: Animal data suggest that Δ9-TetraHydroCannabinol Δ9THC stabilizes autonomic output during sleep, reduces spontaneous sleep-disordered breathing, and blocks serotonin-induced exacerbation of sleep apnea. On this basis, we examined the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of dronabinol Δ9THC, an exogenous Cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea OSA. Design and Setting: Proof of concept; single-center dose-escalation study of dronabinol. Participants: Seventeen adults with a baseline Apnea Hypopnea Index AHI ≥15/h. Baseline polysomnography PSG was performed after a 7-day washout of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure treatment. Intervention: Dronabinol was administered after baseline PSG, starting at 2.5 mg once daily. The dose was increased weekly, as tolerated, to 5 mg and finally to 10 mg once daily. Measurements and Results: Repeat PSG assessments were performed on nights 7, 14, and 21 of dronabinol treatment. Change in AHI ΔAHI, mean ± SD was significant from baseline to night 21 -14.1 ± 17.5; p = 0.007. No degradation of sleep architecture or serious adverse events was noted. Conclusion: Dronabinol treatment is safe and well-tolerated in OSA patients at doses of 2.5-10 mg daily and significantly reduces AHI in the short-term. These findings should be confirmed in a larger study in order to identify sub-populations with OSA that may benefit from cannabimimetic pharmacologic therapy.PMID: 23346060 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC3550518Free PMC Article

via Proof of concept trial of dronabinol in obs... [Front Psychiatry. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI.

US Investigators Praise Cannabinoids As Chemo Treatment

US Investigators Praise Cannabinoids As Chemo Treatment“ Cannabinoids inhibit cancer cell proliferation and should be clinically tested as chemotherapeutic agents, according to a review published in the January issue of the journal Cancer Research.Investigators at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health reported that the administration of cannabinoids halts the spread of a wide range of cancers, including brain cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, skin cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lymphoma. Researchers suggested that cannabinoids may offer significant advantages over standard chemotherapy treatments because the compounds are both non-toxic and can uniquely target malignant cells while ignoring healthy ones.“Cannabinoids … offer potential applications as anti-tumor drugs, based on the ability of some members of this class to limit inflammation, cell proliferation, and cell survival,” authors concluded. “[T]here is overwhelming evidence to suggest that cannabinoids can be explored as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.”"Read more: http://norml.org/news/2008/01/31/us-investigators-praise-cannabinoids-as-chemo-treatment

via US Investigators Praise Cannabinoids As Chemo Treatment | www.thctotalhealthcare.com.

Marijuana and IQ Loss "Study" is Discredited

So much for the scary IQ "study" that claimed teens are vulnerable to an 8-point IQ loss if they use marijuana frequently. The findings were discredited by a thorough review of the data by an outside investigator. There are solid reasons that teens should not be using marijuana regularly, unless they are ill, and these horror stories only muddy the water. Whenever you see a report on a study that claims terrible harm from marijuana, be suspicious, very suspicious. There are numerous so-called clinical investigators who I call researchstitutes (prostituting researchers) who have access to hundreds of millions of dollars from the federal health bureaucracy to fund studies designed and calculated to find harm from marijuana. This is not honest research and the sad thing is that the investigators who pull these scams justify their dishonesty with 20th century reefer madness fallacies, they believe that the end goal of discouraging marijuana use justifies them torturing data and shading results to conform to their expectations. They conduct small studies with patients populations at risk for the maladies they want to associate with marijuana and they ignore contradictory evidence and highlight insubstantial evidence, taken out of context, that seems to offer confirmation of their beliefs. When one conducts small studies, confounding variables sometimes appear and stand out because of the small number of other subjects. When larger studies are done these anomalies disappear. The dishonest researchstitutes who promote disinformation about marijuana take the unusual results when they happen to appear and assert their importance in the face of contrary evidence. Unfortunately, most news reporters are not scientifically literate enough, or even curious enough to look at the actual studies behind the scary press releases. Thank goodness there are other more honest scientists willing to devote the time and resources to double check spurious claims by sleazy, money-grubbing federal henchmen. Oh, another way bogus results are generated is by injecting rats and mice with synthetic cannabinoids (similar to the "bath salts" marketed to avoid marijuana laws) and then claiming the negative results apply to human use of marijuana.

Cannabinoid-associated cell death mechanisms in ... [Int J Oncol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Marijuana=The Anti-Cancer Plant The cannabinoids in marijuana are powerful anti-cancer agents which work in many ways to suppress and destroy malignant cells. These actions are the dreams of cancer researchers and yet, marijuana remains illegal. Spread the news, using marijuana lowers your risk for developing cancer as well as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease!

Int J Oncol. 2012 Aug

.Cannabinoid-associated cell death mechanisms in tumor models review.Calvaruso G, Pellerito O, Notaro A, Giuliano M.SourceDepartment of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Abstract: In recent years, cannabinoids the active components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives have received considerable interest due to findings that they can affect the viability and invasiveness of a variety of different cancer cells. Moreover, in addition to their inhibitory effects on tumor growth and migration, angiogenesis and metastasis, the ability of these compounds to induce different pathways of cell death has been highlighted. Here, we review the most recent results generating interest in the field of death mechanisms induced by cannabinoids in cancer cells. In particular, we analyze the pathways triggered by cannabinoids to induce apoptosis or autophagy and investigate the interplay between the two processes. Overall, the results reported here suggest that the exploration of molecular mechanisms induced by cannabinoids in cancer cells can contribute to the development of safe and effective treatments in cancer therapy.

via Cannabinoid-associated cell death mechanisms in ... [Int J Oncol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI.

Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotro... [J Mol Med (Berl). 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Chemoprevention of disease with cannabis--this is what everyone should be talking about. Using marijuana can protect you from serious illnesses by reducing inflammation, counteracting harmful oxidation, down regulating the production of harmful chemicals in the body, stimulating the production of beneficial chemicals in the body and triggering our intrinsic repair mechanisms, this is big news! We need to encourage everyone we meet to consider embracing cannabis supplementation to guard themselves from Alzheimer's disease, cancer, diabetes and more with chemoprevention.  

J Mol Med (Berl). 2012 Aug;90(8):925-34. Epub 2012 Jan 10.

Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.

Aviello G, Romano B, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Gallo L, Piscitelli F, Di Marzo V, Izzo AA.

Source

Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Endocannabinoid Research Group, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Abstract

Colon cancer affects millions of individuals in Western countries. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of Cannabis sativa, exerts pharmacological actions (antioxidant and intestinal antinflammatory) and mechanisms (inhibition of endocannabinoid enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for colon carcinogenesis. Thus, we investigated its possible chemopreventive effect in the model of colon cancer induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in mice. AOM treatment was associated with aberrant crypt foci (ACF, preneoplastic lesions), polyps, and tumour formation, up-regulation of phospho-Akt, iNOS and COX-2 and down-regulation of caspase-3. Cannabidiol-reduced ACF, polyps and tumours and counteracted AOM-induced phospho-Akt and caspase-3 changes. In colorectal carcinoma cell lines, cannabidiol protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels and reduced cell proliferation in a CB(1)-, TRPV1- and PPARγ-antagonists sensitive manner. It is concluded that cannabidiol exerts chemopreventive effect in vivo and reduces cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms.

PMID:

22231745

[PubMed - in process]

via Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotro... [J Mol Med (Berl). 2012] - PubMed - NCBI.

How Cannabinoids May Slow Brain Aging | TIME.com

The mainstream media is finally recognizing what an amazing story it is that cannabinoids, just like the ones in marijuana, protect and improve our health. The latest from TIME magazine: The latest review, published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, suggests that activating the brain’s cannabinoid system may trigger a sort of anti-oxidant cleanse, removing damaged cells and improving the efficiency of the mitochrondria, the energy source that powers cells, ultimately leading to a more robustly functioning brain.Previous studies have linked cannabinoids to increased amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF, a substance that protects brain cells and promotes the growth of new ones. Since new cell growth slows or stops during aging, increasing BDNF could potentially slow the decline in cognitive functions.

via How Cannabinoids May Slow Brain Aging | TIME.com.

Ginkgo Won't Prevent Alzheimer's, Study Finds - but Yes Weed Can

Marijuana is the Most Effective Herbal Remedy Known to Mankind Marijuana remains your best bet for protecting yourself from, or even treating yourself for, Alzheimer's disease! Here is a report that one herbal remedy, Ginko biloba has no anti-Alzheimer's activity, followed by excerpts from a Scripps study that proves that THC, the psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, is the best-know remedy for the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. But the federal government will not fund nor permit studies on how to utilize this compound to help us because it is so involved with maintaining the war on marijuana in order to fill prison cells for the prison-industrial complex. Even if you've never thought of smoking marijuana and are totally disinterested in anything having to do with "High Times" culture, you must understand that the prohibition of cannabis/marijuana is harming you by preventing you and your loved ones from having safe access to remedies that can protect us all from terrible illnesses.

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 5 HealthDay News -- Yet another study, this one by French researchers, finds that the herbal supplement ginkgo biloba won't prevent or delay Alzheimer's disease."One would hope that this would be the final nail in the coffin for ginkgo," said Dr. Sam Gandy, the Mount Sinai chair in Alzheimer's Disease Research and associate director of the Mount Sinai Alzheimer's Disease Research Center in New York City. "Dead and buried. Enough said. Time to move on."The report is published in the Sept. 6 online edition of The Lancet Neurology.

via Ginkgo Won't Prevent Alzheimer's, Study Finds - US News and World Report.

From the Scripps Research Institute, August 9, 2006: We demonstrate that the active component of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), competitively inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as prevents AChE-induced amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregation, the key pathological marker of Alzheimer's disease. Computational modeling of the THC-AChE interaction revealed that THC binds in the peripheral anionic site of AChE, the critical region involved in amyloidgenesis. Compared to currently approved drugs prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, THC is a considerably superior inhibitor of Aβ aggregation, and this study provides a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism through which cannabinoid molecules may directly impact the progression of this debilitating disease.

Translational Psychiatry - Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia

The cannabinoid cannabidiol, (CBD)--found in marijuana--has remarkable effects against schizophrenic psychosis. It also shows great promise for treating breast cancer and diabetes. The only place you can get medications, i.e. cannabis and cannabis remedies with CBD, is from dispensaries in states with medical marijuana laws. Dispensaries contract with growers to purchase high CBD strains and the products are then tested by analytical labs to ascertain the levels of CBD and THC. The availability of these products has salvaged many, many patients' health and relieved an immense amount of suffering. Why are politicians who claim to be compassionate and concerned about citizens' health care working so hard to close down dispensaries? Terrible, terrible politicians like Dianne Feinstein remain arrogantly and smugly ignorant and cling to out-dated reefer-madness based policies with their greedy blood-stained talons not giving a damn about the misery of cancer, AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes and mental illness patients. Citation: Translational Psychiatry 2012 2, e94; doi:10.1038/tp.2012.15Published online 20 March 2012Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophreniaF M Leweke1,2, D Piomelli3,4, F Pahlisch1,3, D Muhl2,3, C W Gerth2, C Hoyer1,2, J Klosterkötter2, M Hellmich5 and D Koethe1,2 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany 3Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA 4The Unit of Drug Discovery and Development, Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy 5Institute for Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Epidemiology, University of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyCorrespondence: Professor FM Leweke, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, University of Heidelberg, Medical Faculty Mannheim, J5, 68159 Mannheim, Germany. E-mail: leweke@cimh.de; D Piomelli, Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, 3101 Gillespie Neuroscience Facility, Irvine, CA 91697-4625, USA. E-mail: piomelli@uci.eduReceived 13 October 2011; Revised 9 January 2012; Accepted 30 January 2012Top of pageAbstractCannabidiol is a component of marijuana that does not activate cannabinoid receptors, but moderately inhibits the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide. We previously reported that an elevation of anandamide levels in cerebrospinal fluid inversely correlated to psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, enhanced anandamide signaling let to a lower transition rate from initial prodromal states into frank psychosis as well as postponed transition. In our translational approach, we performed a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of cannabidiol vs amisulpride, a potent antipsychotic, in acute schizophrenia to evaluate the clinical relevance of our initial findings. Either treatment was safe and led to significant clinical improvement, but cannabidiol displayed a markedly superior side-effect profile. Moreover, cannabidiol treatment was accompanied by a significant increase in serum anandamide levels, which was significantly associated with clinical improvement. The results suggest that inhibition of anandamide deactivation may contribute to the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol potentially representing a completely new mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia.Keywords:anandamide; cannabidiol; endocannabinoid; fatty acid amide hydrolase; human; schizophrenia

via Translational Psychiatry - Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.

Butter Popcorn Chemical Linked To Alzheimer’s « CBS Dallas / Fort Worth

What is more dangerous than smoking marijuana? Eating buttered popcorn! The cannabinoids in cannabis have been shown to break up the beta-amyloid plaque associated with Alzheimer's disease while a component in artificial butter flavor might actually encourage the depositing of the plaque into brain tissue. I once asked Dr. Andrew Weil, "What's in the butter stuff they put on popcorn in movie theaters?" Dr. Weil replied, "Nothing good!" Butter Popcorn Chemical Linked To Alzheimer’s

August 10, 2012 11:00 AM

NEW YORK (CBS NEWS) - An ingredient used in artificial butter flavoring for popcorn may worsen the effects of an abnormal brain protein that’s been linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

A new study in Chemical Research in Toxicology examined diacetyl (DA), an ingredient used to produce the buttery flavor and smell in microwave popcorn, margarine, candy, baked goods and even pet food. It is also created naturally in fermented drinks like beer, and gives some chardonnay wines its buttery taste, according to the study.

Scientists at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis conducted an analysis of DA, a chemical which previously has been linked to respiratory problems in employees at microwave popcorn and food-flavoring factories. They found that DA has a structure that’s similar to a substance that makes beta-amyloid proteins. Too much amyloid that clumps together to form plaques are a tell-tale marker of Alzheimer’s disease in the brain. The researchers wanted to see whether DA would clump those proteins in a similar fashion to form plaques.

They found DA did lead to an increase in levels of beta-amyloid clumping, leading to toxic effects on nerve cells the scientists grew in a laboratory.

via Butter Popcorn Chemical Linked To Alzheimer’s « CBS Dallas / Fort Worth.

Butter Popcorn Chemical Linked To Alzheimer’s « CBS Dallas / Fort Worth

What is more dangerous than smoking marijuana? Eating buttered popcorn! The cannabinoids in cannabis have been shown to break up the beta-amyloid plaque associated with Alzheimer's disease while a component in artificial butter flavor might actually encourage the depositing of the plaque into brain tissue. I once asked Dr. Andrew Weil, "What's in the butter stuff they put on popcorn in movie theaters?" Dr. Weil replied, "Nothing good!" Butter Popcorn Chemical Linked To Alzheimer’s

August 10, 2012 11:00 AM

NEW YORK (CBS NEWS) - An ingredient used in artificial butter flavoring for popcorn may worsen the effects of an abnormal brain protein that’s been linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

A new study in Chemical Research in Toxicology examined diacetyl (DA), an ingredient used to produce the buttery flavor and smell in microwave popcorn, margarine, candy, baked goods and even pet food. It is also created naturally in fermented drinks like beer, and gives some chardonnay wines its buttery taste, according to the study.

Scientists at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis conducted an analysis of DA, a chemical which previously has been linked to respiratory problems in employees at microwave popcorn and food-flavoring factories. They found that DA has a structure that’s similar to a substance that makes beta-amyloid proteins. Too much amyloid that clumps together to form plaques are a tell-tale marker of Alzheimer’s disease in the brain. The researchers wanted to see whether DA would clump those proteins in a similar fashion to form plaques.

They found DA did lead to an increase in levels of beta-amyloid clumping, leading to toxic effects on nerve cells the scientists grew in a laboratory.

via Butter Popcorn Chemical Linked To Alzheimer’s « CBS Dallas / Fort Worth.

CANNABIDIOL INHIBITS ANGIOGENESIS BY MULTIPLE... [Br J Pharmacol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Again we see the amazing anti-tumor effects of the unique compounds produced by the marijuana/cannabis plant. Again we ask, why is growing, using or distributing this plant illegal? According to the researchers "CBD could represent a potential effective agent in cancer therapy" CANNABIDIOL INHIBITS ANGIOGENESIS BY MULTIPLE MECHANISMS.

Solinas M, Massi P, Cantelmo A, Cattaneo M, Cammarota R, Bartolini D, Cinquina V, Valenti M, Vicentini L, Noonan D, Albini A, Parolaro D.

Source

Department of Biomedical, Computer and Communication Sciences, University of Insubria, Busto Arsizio (VA), Italy, Department of Pharmacology, Chemotherapy and Toxicology, University of Milan, 20129 Milan, Italy, Oncology Research Laboratory, Science and Technology Park, IRCCS MultiMedica, 20138 Milan, Italy, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy.

Abstract

Background and purpose: Several studies demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on several tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits in vitro and in vivo the growth of different types of tumours and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signal produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favorable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here we evaluated CBD ability to modulate tumour angiogenesis. Experimental approach: We firstly evaluated CBD effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability- through MTT assay and FACS analysis-and in vitro motility-both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenic Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) directed at MMP2. Afterwards we evaluated in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels. We further characterized CBD effects using a Matrigel sponge model of in vivo angiogenesis. Key results: CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion, and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. Conclusions and Implications: This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells reinforces the hypothesis that CBD could represent a potential effective agent in cancer therapy. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

© 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

via CANNABIDIOL INHIBITS ANGIOGENESIS BY MULTIPLE... [Br J Pharmacol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI.

CANNABIDIOL INHIBITS ANGIOGENESIS BY MULTIPLE... [Br J Pharmacol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Again we see the amazing anti-tumor effects of the unique compounds produced by the marijuana/cannabis plant. Again we ask, why is growing, using or distributing this plant illegal? According to the researchers "CBD could represent a potential effective agent in cancer therapy" CANNABIDIOL INHIBITS ANGIOGENESIS BY MULTIPLE MECHANISMS.

Solinas M, Massi P, Cantelmo A, Cattaneo M, Cammarota R, Bartolini D, Cinquina V, Valenti M, Vicentini L, Noonan D, Albini A, Parolaro D.

Source

Department of Biomedical, Computer and Communication Sciences, University of Insubria, Busto Arsizio (VA), Italy, Department of Pharmacology, Chemotherapy and Toxicology, University of Milan, 20129 Milan, Italy, Oncology Research Laboratory, Science and Technology Park, IRCCS MultiMedica, 20138 Milan, Italy, Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy.

Abstract

Background and purpose: Several studies demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on several tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits in vitro and in vivo the growth of different types of tumours and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signal produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favorable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here we evaluated CBD ability to modulate tumour angiogenesis. Experimental approach: We firstly evaluated CBD effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability- through MTT assay and FACS analysis-and in vitro motility-both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenic Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) directed at MMP2. Afterwards we evaluated in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels. We further characterized CBD effects using a Matrigel sponge model of in vivo angiogenesis. Key results: CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion, and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. Conclusions and Implications: This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells reinforces the hypothesis that CBD could represent a potential effective agent in cancer therapy. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

© 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

via CANNABIDIOL INHIBITS ANGIOGENESIS BY MULTIPLE... [Br J Pharmacol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI.