Marijuana increases positivity

A just-published study found that THC from marijuana increased activity for positive emotional content. Marijuana enhances happiness which could explain the enormous drop in suicides, especially among young adult men, in medical marijuana states.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Aug 5. pii: S0924-977X(13)00195-8. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.06.009. [Epub ahead of print]

The endocannabinoid system and emotional processing: A pharmacological fMRI study with ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

Bossong MG, van Hell HH, Jager G, Kahn RS, Ramsey NF, Jansma JM. Abstract

Various psychiatric disorders such as major depression are associated with abnormalities in emotional processing. Evidence indicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in emotional processing, and thus potentially in related abnormalities, is increasing. In the present study, we examined the role of the endocannabinoid system in processing of stimuli with a positive and negative emotional content in healthy volunteers. A pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted with a placebo-controlled, cross-over design, investigating effects of the endocannabinoid agonist ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on brain function related to emotional processing in 11 healthy subjects. Performance and brain activity during matching of stimuli with a negative ('fearful faces') or a positive content ('happy faces') were assessed after placebo and THC administration. After THC administration, performance accuracy was decreased for stimuli with a negative but not for stimuli with a positive emotional content. Our task activated a network of brain regions including amygdala, orbital frontal gyrus, hippocampus, parietal gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and regions in the occipital cortex. THC interacted with emotional content, as activity in this network was reduced for negative content, while activity for positive content was increased. These results indicate that THC administration reduces the negative bias in emotional processing. This adds human evidence to support the hypothesis that the endocannabinoid system is involved in modulation of emotional processing. Our findings also suggest a possible role for the endocannabinoid system in abnormal emotional processing, and may thus be relevant for psychiatric disorders such as major depression.

via The endocannabinoid system and emot... [Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI.

How stress and depression can shrink the brain | Mail Online

In a recent report on research into cannabis' effects on the brain, it was discovered that cannabinoids actually increase and improve functional connectivity in the brain. Chronic, long-term marijuana smokers had improved nerve connectivity in the brain compared with nonusers of cannabis. The following report indicates that stress and depression inhibit the formation of nerve connections in the brain so it is logical to conclude that using marijuana is not only a remedy for the discomfort caused by stress, but that it can actually prevent and repair the damage resulting from stress and depressive states. Now we need research to confirm that THC and other cannabinoids suppress the formation of, or block the activation of GATA1, the protein identified as the primary culprit responsible for the loss of functional connectivity and brain shrinkage. Cannabis remedies brain shrinkage and deterioration, so Grace Slick was correct when, during the Summer of Love she sang "Feed your head." How stress and depression can shrink the brain

Depression blocks the formation of new nerve connections in the brain

By Daily Mail Reporter

PUBLISHED: 03:31 EST, 13 August 2012 | UPDATED: 03:39 EST, 13 August 2012

Common symptoms of depressive disorder are memory loss and blunted emotional responses

Severe depression and chronic stress can shrink the brain by blocking the formation of new nerve connections, a study has shown.

The effect disrupts circuits associated with mental functioning and emotion.

It could explain why people with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer from concentration and memory loss, as well as blunted emotional responses.

Several genes involved in building synapses, the connection points between brain cells, were suppressed in people with MDD, scientists found.

This was thought to contribute to shrinkage of the brain's prefrontal cortex, which is known to occur in MDD sufferers.

Researchers in the US analysed brain tissue from patients who had died after being diagnosed with MDD.

They found molecular signs of reduced activity in genes necessary for the function and structure of brain synapses.

Evidence pointed to the involvement of a single genetic "switch", or transcription factor - a protein called GATA1.

Turning on GATA1 reduced activity of the genes and triggered the loss of brain connections.

 

Study leader Professor Ronald Duman, from Yale University, said: 'We wanted to test the idea that stress causes a loss of brain synapses in humans.

'We show that circuits normally involved in emotion, as well as cognition, are disrupted when this single transcription factor is activated.'

The research is published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Medicine.

Further studies on rats showed that when GATA1 was switched on, the rodents showed signs of depression. This suggests that loss of brain synapses may be linked to depressive symptoms as well as mental impairment.

'We hope that by enhancing synaptic connections, either with novel medications or behavioural therapy, we can develop more effective antidepressant therapies,' Prof Duman added. (Professor, we have the "novel medication," it is cannabis. And it is cheap, safe and very effective.)