How stress and depression can shrink the brain | Mail Online

In a recent report on research into cannabis' effects on the brain, it was discovered that cannabinoids actually increase and improve functional connectivity in the brain. Chronic, long-term marijuana smokers had improved nerve connectivity in the brain compared with nonusers of cannabis. The following report indicates that stress and depression inhibit the formation of nerve connections in the brain so it is logical to conclude that using marijuana is not only a remedy for the discomfort caused by stress, but that it can actually prevent and repair the damage resulting from stress and depressive states. Now we need research to confirm that THC and other cannabinoids suppress the formation of, or block the activation of GATA1, the protein identified as the primary culprit responsible for the loss of functional connectivity and brain shrinkage. Cannabis remedies brain shrinkage and deterioration, so Grace Slick was correct when, during the Summer of Love she sang "Feed your head." How stress and depression can shrink the brain

Depression blocks the formation of new nerve connections in the brain

By Daily Mail Reporter

PUBLISHED: 03:31 EST, 13 August 2012 | UPDATED: 03:39 EST, 13 August 2012

Common symptoms of depressive disorder are memory loss and blunted emotional responses

Severe depression and chronic stress can shrink the brain by blocking the formation of new nerve connections, a study has shown.

The effect disrupts circuits associated with mental functioning and emotion.

It could explain why people with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer from concentration and memory loss, as well as blunted emotional responses.

Several genes involved in building synapses, the connection points between brain cells, were suppressed in people with MDD, scientists found.

This was thought to contribute to shrinkage of the brain's prefrontal cortex, which is known to occur in MDD sufferers.

Researchers in the US analysed brain tissue from patients who had died after being diagnosed with MDD.

They found molecular signs of reduced activity in genes necessary for the function and structure of brain synapses.

Evidence pointed to the involvement of a single genetic "switch", or transcription factor - a protein called GATA1.

Turning on GATA1 reduced activity of the genes and triggered the loss of brain connections.

 

Study leader Professor Ronald Duman, from Yale University, said: 'We wanted to test the idea that stress causes a loss of brain synapses in humans.

'We show that circuits normally involved in emotion, as well as cognition, are disrupted when this single transcription factor is activated.'

The research is published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Medicine.

Further studies on rats showed that when GATA1 was switched on, the rodents showed signs of depression. This suggests that loss of brain synapses may be linked to depressive symptoms as well as mental impairment.

'We hope that by enhancing synaptic connections, either with novel medications or behavioural therapy, we can develop more effective antidepressant therapies,' Prof Duman added. (Professor, we have the "novel medication," it is cannabis. And it is cheap, safe and very effective.)

 

Acute Stress Increases Circulating A... [Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Detractors of the medical marijuana movement mock the access to cannabis dispensaries by patients due to "stress" ailments but as we once again see, science has proven them wrong. There is a growing body of evidence to prove that using marijuana not only relieves the feelings of stress that we often endure, it actually neutralizes or inhibits the production of damaging chemicals the result from stress. This study found that stress causes a rise in the blood levels of endocannabinoids in order to protect the body from the harm caused by stress-related compounds. So it logically follows that supplementing the activity of the endocannabinoids with phytocannabinoids from marijuana can increase this type of biochemical protection. But those of us who use it have known this for years and regret deeply that the stigma associated with marijuana has deprived millions of people from this safe, inexpensive and enjoyable stress-relieving remedy. Acute Stress Increases Circulating Anandamide and Other N-Acylethanolamines in Healthy Humans.

Dlugos A, Childs E, Stuhr KL, Hillard CJ, de Wit H.

Source

1] Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany [2] Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Abstract

Stress plays an important role in psychiatric disorders, and preclinical evidence indicates that the central endocannabinoid system modulates endocrine and neuronal responses to stress. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress on circulating concentrations of endocannabinoids (eCBs) in healthy humans. A total of 71 adults participated in two sessions in which they were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. Blood samples for eCB and cortisol assays and cardiovascular and subjective measures were obtained before and at regular intervals after the tasks. Serum concentrations of the eCBs, N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), as well as of the N-acylethanolamides (NAEs), N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), and of the O-acylglycerol, 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG), were determined. Compared with the control condition, stress increased serum concentrations of AEA and the other NAEs immediately after the stress period. Increases in PEA were positively correlated with increases in serum cortisol after stress. Furthermore, anxiety ratings at baseline were negatively correlated with baseline concentrations of AEA. The sex and menstrual cycle status of the subject affected the NAE responses to stress. Interestingly, subjects of Asian and African-American races exhibited different patterns of stress responses compared with the Caucasian subjects. These results indicate that stress increases circulating NAEs in healthy human volunteers. This finding supports a protective role for eCBs in anxiety. Further research is needed to elucidate the function of these lipid mediators, and to determine the mechanisms that regulate their appearance in the circulation.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 4 July 2012; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.100.

via Acute Stress Increases Circulating A... [Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI.

Acute Stress Increases Circulating A... [Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Detractors of the medical marijuana movement mock the access to cannabis dispensaries by patients due to "stress" ailments but as we once again see, science has proven them wrong. There is a growing body of evidence to prove that using marijuana not only relieves the feelings of stress that we often endure, it actually neutralizes or inhibits the production of damaging chemicals the result from stress. This study found that stress causes a rise in the blood levels of endocannabinoids in order to protect the body from the harm caused by stress-related compounds. So it logically follows that supplementing the activity of the endocannabinoids with phytocannabinoids from marijuana can increase this type of biochemical protection. But those of us who use it have known this for years and regret deeply that the stigma associated with marijuana has deprived millions of people from this safe, inexpensive and enjoyable stress-relieving remedy. Acute Stress Increases Circulating Anandamide and Other N-Acylethanolamines in Healthy Humans.

Dlugos A, Childs E, Stuhr KL, Hillard CJ, de Wit H.

Source

1] Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany [2] Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Abstract

Stress plays an important role in psychiatric disorders, and preclinical evidence indicates that the central endocannabinoid system modulates endocrine and neuronal responses to stress. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress on circulating concentrations of endocannabinoids (eCBs) in healthy humans. A total of 71 adults participated in two sessions in which they were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. Blood samples for eCB and cortisol assays and cardiovascular and subjective measures were obtained before and at regular intervals after the tasks. Serum concentrations of the eCBs, N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), as well as of the N-acylethanolamides (NAEs), N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), and of the O-acylglycerol, 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG), were determined. Compared with the control condition, stress increased serum concentrations of AEA and the other NAEs immediately after the stress period. Increases in PEA were positively correlated with increases in serum cortisol after stress. Furthermore, anxiety ratings at baseline were negatively correlated with baseline concentrations of AEA. The sex and menstrual cycle status of the subject affected the NAE responses to stress. Interestingly, subjects of Asian and African-American races exhibited different patterns of stress responses compared with the Caucasian subjects. These results indicate that stress increases circulating NAEs in healthy human volunteers. This finding supports a protective role for eCBs in anxiety. Further research is needed to elucidate the function of these lipid mediators, and to determine the mechanisms that regulate their appearance in the circulation.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 4 July 2012; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.100.

via Acute Stress Increases Circulating A... [Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI.